Jewish Text Study on hospitality – Rabbi Ian Goodhardt
The Hand of Welcome
Genesis Chapter 18
1 And the LORD appeared unto him [Abraham] in the Plains of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; × ×•Ö·×™ÖµÖ¼×¨Ö¸× ×Öµ×œÖ¸×™×• ×”’, ×‘Ö°Ö¼×Öµ×œÖ¹× Öµ×™ ×žÖ·×žÖ°×¨Öµ×; ×•Ö°×”×•Ö¼× ×™Ö¹×©Öµ××‘ ×¤Ö¶Ö¼×ªÖ·×—-×”Ö¸×Ö¹×”Ö¶×œ, ×›Ö°Ö¼×—Ö¹× ×”Ö·×™Ö¼×•Ö¹×.
2 and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth, ×‘ ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×©Ö¸Ö¼×‚× ×¢Öµ×™× Ö¸×™×•, ×•Ö·×™Ö·Ö¼×¨Ö°×, ×•Ö°×”Ö´× ÖµÖ¼×” ×©Ö°××œÖ¹×©Ö¸××” ×Ö²× Ö¸×©Ö´××™×, × Ö´×¦Ö¸Ö¼×‘Ö´×™× ×¢Ö¸×œÖ¸×™×•; ×•Ö·×™Ö·Ö¼×¨Ö°×, ×•Ö·×™Ö¸Ö¼×¨Ö¸×¥ ×œÖ´×§Ö°×¨Ö¸××ªÖ¸× ×žÖ´×¤Ö¶Ö¼×ªÖ·×— ×”Ö¸×Ö¹×”Ö¶×œ, ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×©Ö°××ªÖ·Ö¼×—×•Ö¼, ×Ö¸×¨Ö°×¦Ö¸×”.
3 and said: “My lord, if now I have found favour in your sight, please do not pass, I pray you, from your servant. ×’ ×•Ö·×™Ö¹Ö¼××žÖ·×¨: ×Ö²×“Ö¹-× Ö¸×™, ×Ö´×-× Ö¸× ×žÖ¸×¦Ö¸××ªÖ´×™ ×—Öµ×Ÿ ×‘Ö°Ö¼×¢Öµ×™× Ö¶×™×šÖ¸–×Ö·×œ-× Ö¸× ×ªÖ·×¢Ö²×‘Ö¹×¨, ×žÖµ×¢Ö·×œ ×¢Ö·×‘Ö°×“Ö¶Ö¼×šÖ¸.
4 Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet; rest under the tree. ×“ ×™Ö»×§Ö·Ö¼×—-× Ö¸× ×žÖ°×¢Ö·×˜-×žÖ·×™Ö´×, ×•Ö°×¨Ö·×—Ö²×¦×•Ö¼ ×¨Ö·×’Ö°×œÖµ×™×›Ö¶×; ×•Ö°×”Ö´×©Ö¸Ö¼××¢Ö²× ×•Ö¼, ×ªÖ·Ö¼×—Ö·×ª ×”Ö¸×¢Öµ×¥.
5 I will fetch a morsel of bread so that you can refresh yourselves; then you can continue on; after all, you have come to your servant.” And they said: “Yes; do as you have said.” ×” ×•Ö°×Ö¶×§Ö°×—Ö¸×” ×¤Ö·×ª-×œÖ¶×—Ö¶× ×•Ö°×¡Ö·×¢Ö²×“×•Ö¼ ×œÖ´×‘Ö°Ö¼×›Ö¶×, ×Ö·×—Ö·×¨ ×ªÖ·Ö¼×¢Ö²×‘Ö¹×¨×•Ö¼–×›Ö´Ö¼×™-×¢Ö·×œ-×›ÖµÖ¼×Ÿ ×¢Ö²×‘Ö·×¨Ö°×ªÖ¶Ö¼×, ×¢Ö·×œ-×¢Ö·×‘Ö°×“Ö°Ö¼×›Ö¶×; ×•Ö·×™Ö¹Ö¼××žÖ°×¨×•Ö¼, ×›ÖµÖ¼×Ÿ ×ªÖ·Ö¼×¢Ö²×©Ö¶×‚×” ×›Ö·Ö¼×Ö²×©Ö¶××¨ ×“Ö´Ö¼×‘Ö·Ö¼×¨Ö°×ªÖ¸Ö¼.
6 And Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah, and said: “Quick! Three measures of fine flour! Knead it! Make cakes!” ×• ×•Ö·×™Ö°×žÖ·×”Öµ×¨ ×Ö·×‘Ö°×¨Ö¸×”Ö¸× ×”Ö¸×Ö¹×”Ö±×œÖ¸×”, ×Ö¶×œ-×©Ö¸×‚×¨Ö¸×”; ×•Ö·×™Ö¹Ö¼××žÖ¶×¨, ×žÖ·×”Ö²×¨Ö´×™ ×©Ö°××œÖ¹×©× ×¡Ö°×Ö´×™× ×§Ö¶×žÖ·×— ×¡Ö¹×œÖ¶×ª–×œ×•Ö¼×©Ö´××™, ×•Ö·×¢Ö²×©Ö´×‚×™ ×¢Ö»×’×•Ö¹×ª.
7 Abraham ran to the cattle, and fetched a tender and choice calf, and gave it unto the young man who rushed to prepare it. ×– ×•Ö°×Ö¶×œ-×”Ö·×‘Ö¸Ö¼×§Ö¸×¨, ×¨Ö¸×¥ ×Ö·×‘Ö°×¨Ö¸×”Ö¸×; ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×§Ö·Ö¼×— ×‘Ö¶Ö¼×Ÿ-×‘Ö¸Ö¼×§Ö¸×¨ ×¨Ö·×šÖ° ×•Ö¸×˜×•Ö¹×‘, ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×ªÖµÖ¼×Ÿ ×Ö¶×œ-×”Ö·× Ö·Ö¼×¢Ö·×¨, ×•Ö·×™Ö°×žÖ·×”Öµ×¨, ×œÖ·×¢Ö²×©×‚×•Ö¹×ª ×Ö¹×ª×•Ö¹.
8 And he took butter (or curd/cottage cheese), and milk, and the calf which he had prepared, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree as they ate. ×— ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×§Ö·Ö¼×— ×—Ö¶×žÖ°×Ö¸×” ×•Ö°×—Ö¸×œÖ¸×‘, ×•Ö¼×‘Ö¶×Ÿ-×”Ö·×‘Ö¸Ö¼×§Ö¸×¨ ×Ö²×©Ö¶××¨ ×¢Ö¸×©Ö¸×‚×”, ×•Ö·×™Ö´Ö¼×ªÖµÖ¼×Ÿ, ×œÖ´×¤Ö°× Öµ×™×”Ö¶×; ×•Ö°×”×•Ö¼×-×¢Ö¹×žÖµ×“ ×¢Ö²×œÖµ×™×”Ö¶× ×ªÖ·Ö¼×—Ö·×ª ×”Ö¸×¢Öµ×¥, ×•Ö·×™Ö¹Ö¼××›Öµ×œ×•Ö¼.
Babylonian Talmud – Bava Metzia 86a
And the Lord appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day. What is meant by ‘in the heat of the day’? â€” R. Hama son of R. Hanina said: It was the third day from Abraham’s circumcision, and the Holy One, blessed be He, came to enquire after Abraham’s health; [moreover,] he drew the sun out of its sheath, so that the righteous man [i.e. Abraham] should not be troubled with wayfarers. He sent Eliezer out [to seek travellers], but he found none. Said he, ‘I do not believe thee’. (Hence they say there â€” i.e. in Israel â€” slaves are not to be believed.) So he himself went out, and saw the Holy One, blessed be He, standing at the door; thus it is written, Pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant. But on seeing him tying and untying [the bandages of his circumcision], He said, ‘It is not well that I stand here’; hence it is written, And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and lo, three men stood by him, and when he saw them, he ran to meet them: at first they came and stood over him, but when they saw him in pain, they said, ‘It is not seemly to stand here.’
Babylonian Talmud – Shabbat 127a
R. Yehudah said in the name of Rav: Hospitality is even a greater merit than receiving the Divine Presence (Shekhina), as it is written [Genesis xviii. 3]: “And he said, My Lord, if now I have found favour in thy eyes, pass not away,” etc. (showing that Abraham let the Lord wait while he went to receive his guests).
Babylonian Talmud – Kiddushin 32b
Babylonian Talmud – Ta’anit 20b
Rabba asked Raphram bar Papa: “Can you relate to me the good things which R. Huna did?” And he replied: “I do not remember anything of his youth; but when he was of mature age â€¦. When sitting down to a meal, he would order a servant to throw open the doors and call out: ×›Ö¸Ö¼×œ ×“Ö´×›Ö°×¤Ö´×™×Ÿ ×™Öµ×™×ªÖµ×™ ×•Ö°×™Öµ×™×›Ö¹×œ Whoever desires to eat, let him come in and do so.”
Other biblical examples:
â€¢ Rahab was rewarded for accommodating Joshua’s two spies (Josh. 2)
â€¢ Manoach did not allow the angel to depart until he had partaken of hospitality (Judg. 13:15)
â€¢ The Shunamite woman prepared a special room to accommodate Elisha (II Kings 4:8-11)
Isaiah Chapter 58
7 Is it not for you to spread your bread to the hungry, and that you bring the moaning poor to your house? when you see the naked, you should cover him, and not hide yourself from your own flesh? ×– ×”Ö²×œ×•Ö¹× ×¤Ö¸×¨Ö¹×¡ ×œÖ¸×¨Ö¸×¢Öµ×‘ ×œÖ·×—Ö°×žÖ¶×šÖ¸, ×•Ö·×¢Ö²× Ö´×™Ö´Ö¼×™× ×žÖ°×¨×•Ö¼×“Ö´×™× ×ªÖ¸Ö¼×‘Ö´×™× ×‘Ö¸×™Ö´×ª: ×›Ö´Ö¼×™-×ªÖ´×¨Ö°×Ö¶×” ×¢Ö¸×¨Ö¹× ×•Ö°×›Ö´×¡Ö´Ö¼×™×ª×•Ö¹, ×•Ö¼×žÖ´×‘Ö°Ö¼×©Ö¸×‚×¨Ö°×šÖ¸ ×œÖ¹× ×ªÖ´×ªÖ°×¢Ö·×œÖ¸Ö¼×.
Maimonides – Mishne Torah, Hil. Avel 14:2
The merit of accompanying [guests on their way] is the greatest of all. And this is a statute that was enacted by our father Abraham, and is the way of kindness in which he conducted himself. One feeds travellers, gives them drink, and accompanies them. And welcoming guests is greater than welcoming the Divine Presence etc. Escorting them on their way is more important than welcoming them in. The rabbis said: Whoever does not accompany is as if he shed blood.